Basic Idea in Computer Motherboard


Basic Idea in Computer Motherboard

A computer motherboard is an electrical board use in computers, laptops, and other expandable systems. All electronic components of the computer system connected, such as the CPU, random access memory, DVD burner, graphics card, hard controller, mouse, keyboard, and monitor.


If we talk about the types of the motherboard, then Six types of motherboards are available. They are-

  • AT Motherboard
  • ATX Motherboard
  • LPX Motherboard
  • BTX Motherboard
  • Pico BTX
  • Mini ITX Motherboard


Parts of Computer Motherboard

  1. CPU Socket

The processor socket is located in the middle of the motherboard. When we assemble a

processor socket
        Computer processor socket

computer, we put the processor on the processor socket. On all computers, the processor installs according to the contents of the computer motherboard. Various type of processor is Pentium, Dual-core, Quad-core, Octa-core, i3-core, i5-core, i7-core, and so on.


  1. RAM Slot

The RAM slot contains the computer’s main memory. This is a small part of the computer, but very important. We buy more and more computers with good RAM to work at the

RAM slot
                     RAM slot

required speed.

The more RAM a computer has, the softer and smoother because a computer with more RAM can run multiple applications at once, on the other hand, a computer with less RAM will hang when additional programs opened at the same time.

  1. IDE Connector

The IDE has an integrated electronic drive. It used to connect hard drives and some optical drives to the computer motherboard. But now the IDE outdated, so it is rare.

Instead, a SATA cable used, which is smaller and faster. SATA cable is also available in the market SATA 1, SATA 2, SATA 3, and others.

  1. BIOS Chip & CMOS Battery

It contains semiconductors with additional metal oxide consisting of CMOS. This is a semiconductor battery chip that stores information. They can vary from the system, time

                   BIOS Chip

and date, to computer hardware settings. When the computer starts, it uses the BIOS chip to store information.

The normal lifespan of a CMOS battery is 10 years, but it depends on the computer and the environment. If the CMOS battery fails, the system settings, date, and time not saved and the CMOS battery may deplete if the computer turned off for a long time.

  1. North Bridge & South Bridge

The computer board

divided into North Bridge and South Bridge. The North Bridge memory controls the PCI slot, and the South Bridge processor controls the network card.

  1. Rear Connector

These are the ports that connect things like the mouse, keyboard, and data cable on the edge of the computer. PS / 2, dual-link, USB, optical digital output, VGA, HDMI, eSATA, audio, and GbE LAN port, etc.

  1. Graphics Card Slot

This is the slot on the right side of the plate that allows you to view videos and pictures on your computer. The graphics card itself called a video card.

If your computer does not have a graphics card, we will not be able to watch the video on your computer. Currently, the computer has the best graphics cards and both video cards, so we can play high-quality games.

  1. Form factor

Motherboards come in a variety of sizes and shapes, called computer form factor. Some of them are typical of personal computer manufacturers.

However, the boards used in IBM compatible systems limited in size. Since 2005, most desktop computer boards have a standard ATX form factor – even Macintosh and Sun computers do not have product components. Housing and power supply units (PSUs) should all fit the form factor, but smaller form factors in the same family are more appropriate. For example, an ATX case usually receives a microATX board.

Computers typically use highly integrated, miniature, and special boards. This is one of the reasons why laptops are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair. A computer component failure requires the entire board to replace, which is often more expensive than a desktop board.


Computer Motherboard Troubleshooting

  • Fault 1: Not Show Boot

The computer not displayed, we need to check the BIOS. The motherboard BIOS stores important hardware data. The BIOS, on the other hand, is the weakest part of the computer board, and if that severely damaged, it can cause the system to malfunction.

This failure is usually due to the BIOS being infected with the CIH virus on board (of course, not to mention that a board failure will not control the system). In general, the data on the BIOS hard drive that destroyed by the viruses will be lost. So we can collect data from the hard drive to determine if a good BIOS broken.

three reasons why not show boot phenomenon:

1. Because the card has an expansion card or expansion card issues, the commission may charge an expansion card, such as sound cards, and so on including, does not respond.

2. The jumper on the router does not set the correct CMOS processor frequency, which can lead to errors. Because of this, failures can rectify until the CMOS is clear.

The Clear CMOS jumper i located next to the main lithium battery panel. The default point is usually 1.2 short. To solve the problem, switch to 2.3 short jumps, in one second.

If users can’t find the desktop front jumps, remove the battery, enter the CMOS settings, and download. Then, the installation battery came in order to drain the CMOS charge.

3. The best game board does not recognize memory, which can cause memory corruption or memory mismatch. Some have selective memory on the old board Sometimes the type of memory can also lead to such problems to improve the performance of the memory expansion system by adding different brands, so you need to pay more attention to maintenance.

When the BIOS panel damaged, we can insert an ISA card into the screen (you can suggest these steps if requested). If there is no boot screen, you can update the BIOS to the floppy automatically, but some of the BIOS on the board corrupted, the floppy does not work, so try to fix it by hot-false method (always use the same BIOS, and used the same class board to make the writing successful).

However, using a plug-in that requires the same BIOS can damage some onboard devices. Therefore, the safest way is to write the BIOS update file to the BIOS.

  • Fault 2: CMOS Settings Problem

Such failures are usually due to the insufficient voltage of the plate battery, which can replace to solve the problem, but some plates can not solve the same problem after replacing the battery, there are two options:

  1. Motherboard circuit problems.
  2. Motherboard CMOS jumper problem.
  • Fault 3: Disk Damage or Slow Reading

In Windows, after installing the CD-ROM driver on the board, disk damage or slow reading may occur. This can also happen on some unnamed plates.

Restarting the computer after managing the card drivers will not be able to access the Windows 98 desktop and you will not be able to uninstall the driver in Windows 98.

If this happens, it recommended that you find and install the latest drivers. The problem can usually solve, otherwise, the system can reinstall.

  • Fault 4: Mouse is Not Available

The Windows mouse is not available during Windows installation or startup

The cause of software failure is incorrect in CMOS settings. The power management parameters in the CMOS field have an IRQ project for modem use, the parameters of which are 3,4,5, etc.

  • Fault 5: Frequent Computer Crashes, Freezes Occur

This phenomenon caused by CMOS crashes, usually a problem with the motherboard or processor, which can only replace the motherboard or processor if the following method errors not fixed.

This failure was due to a general cache problem or the poor performance of the best board in game design and found that cooling the 815EP board failure phenomenon was not enough.

Death Touch CPU components appeared around the battery, which revealed that the temperature was too hot. Errors can eliminate after replacing high-power fans. We can add CMOS settings to caching issues.

  • Fault 6: COM Port or Parallel Port Problem

This problem is due to the equipment connected to the user’s hotplug. In this case, the user can use a multi-purpose card to replace it. However, pre-switching on the COM port and the parallel port prohibited. It is the best solution.


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