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Components of a computer network

Components of a computer network

The components of a computer network are a pool of computers. This computer is interconnected through wires, optical fibers, or different connected devices.  The main focus of this network system is sharing.

Therefore, the users of a computer network system can use the component and share any file through any connected computer.

Use of Component of a computer network

Computer networking
Computer networking

  • Resource sharing

Programs, printers, and different types of data can share from the resource system. Therefore there are no requirements of the physical location of the resources.

  • Server client model

In the case of the server-client model, there is a vast use of the computer network system. In this system, a central computer is used as a server where all the data and information are stored.

The system administrator can control the server. And on the opposite site clients are present. They can access the stored information.

  • E-commerce

e-commerce is a very popular platform in this virtual world. It is the best way to start a business. It can also help to grow a business. So the computer network system has a major role in e-commerce. Some examples of e-commerce are amazon, Flipkart, eBay, Paytm mall, Club factory, etc.

  • Communication purpose

Like the other network system, it also helps in communication. Users can communicate easily through a computer network system. This type of communication is used inside the company to send or receive an in-process document.

Major Components of Computer Network System

Computer networking: Router
Computer networking: Router

Computer network components are important to install the software.

There are different types of components like NIC, modem, hub, cable, router, etc. Depending upon the network type, components are installed. For example, for the cable network, wireless components are not used.

  • National interface card (NIC)
  • It is a type of hardware that helps to connect one computer to another through a network.
  • The transfer rate of this component is 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps.
  • In the national interface card, a MAC or physical address is encoded. So, it helps to identify a network card uniquely by IEEE. The ROM can store the MAC address.

Types of NIC

  • Wired NIC

Generally used inside the motherboard. Cables and connectors help to transfer data in wired NIC

  • Wireless NIC

An antenna is used in wireless NIC. Through this antenna wireless connection is formed. It uses on a laptop, computer.

  • Hub

Hub is hardware. It helps to split a network connection among multiple devices. When any information comes from a network first it goes to the hub through cable. After that, the hub will distribute the information to the entire network.

The connected devices are checked first that the request is sent for them or not. Without any request, it will drop the information. It is a very old technique. This technique is replaced by Switch and router. Moreover, these are the more advanced computer network components.

  • Switch

The switch is connecting hardware. Its working process is just opposite to the Hub. It helps to connect multiple computer networks. A switch is more advance than Hub. An updated table is installed into the switch which helps to control the transmission of data.

According to the incoming message address, it delivers the message. Like the hub, it does not broadcast the message. So, it makes a direct connection between the source and the destination. In this way, the speed of the process is also increased by using this computer network component.

  • Cables and connector

    Computer Network Cable
    Computer Network Cable

Cable and connector are transmission media. Therefore, It uses for signal transmission.

Three types of cables used in transmission:

  • Twisted pair cable
  • Coaxial cable
  • Fiber-optic cable


  • Router

  • It is an advanced hardware device.
  • It connects a LAN with an internet
  • The router works in 3 network layers.
  • It chooses the right path from the available paths for the packet transform.

Advantages of router

  1. Security: the specific address can read the information.
  2. Reliability: if there is any problem with the server then networks go down. But other networks don’t affect.
  3. Performance: if the load increases it split the network signal and reduces the traffic.
  4. Network range: the range of networks depends on the router.
  5. Modem
  1. It is a hardware device.
  2. It helps to connect the computer to the internet through an existing telephone line.
  3. This does not attach to the motherboard.
  4. It installs through a PCI slot that is present on the motherboard.
  5. It transformed the digital data into a signal and send it through telephone lines.
  6. According to the speed and data transmission rate, this modem can be classified into 3 categories
  7. Standard PC modem or Dial-up modem
  8. Cellular Modem
  9. Cable modem

Types of computer networks

  1. LAN(Local Area Network)
  2. Use in small areas like building, office
  3. Connecting two or more personal computer through twisted pair, coaxial cable
  4. Cost is low due to the use of inexpensive network systems like a hub, Ethernet cable, and adapters.
  5. The transmission rate is good in the local area.
  6. LAN security is high.
  7. PAN(Personal Area Network)
  8. Use for personal purpose within the range of 10 meters.
  9. Thomas Zimmerman first gives this idea.
  10. It covers around 30 feets
  11. The connected devices are laptop, mobile, smart TV, printer, headset, media player, and play station.
  12. It is 2 types like Wired Personal Area Network and Wireless Personal Area Network.
  13. MAN(Metropolitan Area Network)
  14. It connects a large geographic area by interconnection with other LAN and forms a large network.
  15. Government agencies use to connect the citizens and private industries.
  16. Here LAN interconnects through a telephone exchange line.
  17. Used protocols are RS-232, Frame Relay, ATM, ISDN, OC-3, ADSL, etc.
  18. The range is higher than LAN
  19. WAN(Wide Area Network)
  20. It connects a large area like states and countries.
  21. Bigger network than others
  22. It uses for business, government, and educational purposes.

Conclusion: Components of a computer network

Use of Computer networking
Use of Computer networking

In this modern era, companies have created different types of computer networks. The technology that mankind has today, from wire to wireless, is simply amazing and continues to evolve and connect only with people around the world. So to make this possible, we need to thank the computer network.

Finally, a network connects two or more computers to communication resources and treats each other’s telecommunication systems with the purpose of connecting, while connected. So, companies without a network are more effective at connecting resources and making production more efficient.




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