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Detail about Computer Memory and its storage

Detail about Computer Memory and its storage

A computer memory or storage device used to store data or programs (instructions) for use in an electronic computer. Computers provide information in binary code written in order 0 to 1. The physical system can store each binary number, they can be in two constant states, they represent 0 and 1. This system called bistable.

Types of Computer Memory:

Although there are many types of memory in a computer, often system memory/primary memory, and secondary memory/secondary storage.

  1. Primary Memory:

    The main memory contains ROM and RAM, and the CPU is close to the computer board, which allows the processor to quickly read the original memory data.

The CPU stores the data you need immediately, so you don’t have to wait for delivery.

  1. Secondary Memory:

    The second memory, on the one hand, is located on a physically allocated storage device, such as a hard disk or SSD, which is directly connected to a computer system or connected to a network.

The cost of a second gigabyte of memory is much lower, but the read and write speeds are much slower.

Primary Computer Memory Types:

There are two key types of primary memory.

  • RAM Computer Memory

The abbreviated name of RAM is random access memory is the ability to access data stored, no matter what the name – in any case. It also has all the other data bits.

The most important thing to understand about RAM is that RAM is very fast, except for reading and reading, it is volatile (so all data stored in RAM is lost when power is lost) and finally. Gigabytes are very expensive in comparison to all types of secondary memory. Memory is more expensive than additional types of memory, as many computer systems use primary and secondary memory.

The information needed for future processes is sent to RAM, where it can be entered and modified, so the processor does not have to wait. When data is no longer needed, the second memory is slow but cheap, and the RAM is filled with the next part that is used.

Types of RAM

  1. DRAM:

    DRAM is the most common type of dynamic memory, uses in computers. The oldest type is DRAM Data Rate (SDR), but newer computers use DRAM Double Data Rate (DDR) faster.

It has several versions of DDR, including DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4, which offer better performance and save energy than DDR. However, different versions are not compatible, so it is not possible to mix DDR2 with DDR3 DRAM in a computer system. Each DRAM cell consists of a transistor and a capacitor.

  1. SRAM:

    SRAM is a static RAM and a fast type of DRAM, but faster than DRAM, but more expensive and powerful, with six transistors in each cell.

For these reasons, SRAM is very large server systems as a data cache or as RAM on the same page. A small SRAM cache of minimal data can improve system speed. Significant differences between DRAM and SRAM are that SRAM is faster than DRAM, probably two to three times faster, but more expensive and bulky.

SRAM uses in megabytes and DRAM  in gigabytes.DRAM uses more energy than SRAM. Because DRAM updates to maintain the integrity of the data, and SRAM, even if volatile, updating is not constantly.

ROM is read-only memory, and this name understood by computer memory, but it can’t write data again normally. The type of computer memory is very fast and one can usually install next to the onboard CPU board.

ROM is a type of non-volatile memory, which means that the data stored in the ROM always present in memory, for example, if the computer is off, the data remains there. In this sense, it is similar to the second memory used for long-term storage.

When the computer is on, the processor begins to read the information stored in the ROM to help drivers or other sophisticated software.

The ROM usually contains a “boot code” that contains information about the operating system stored in the secondary memory and a set of basic instructions. The computer must follow to boot parts of the operating system into the primary memory and ready to use. Ordinary electronic devices use the ROM to store software that runs after the device is on.

Types of ROM

  1. PROM:

    PROM is programmable memory. At first, the PROM creates in an empty state and then programmed after the PROM programmer.

  2. EPROM:

    Programmable EPROM is a programmable read memory and you can delete data stored in the EPROM by name and reprogram to the EPROM. Removing the EPROM removes it from the computer and burns it in the UV light.

  3. EEPROM:

    EEPROM is programmable memory for electronic unreadable memory, and the difference between EPROM and EEPROM is that it can delete and write to an installed computer system. In this sense, EEPROM is not just for reading.

However, in most cases, the writing process is slow, so program code, such as software or BIOS code updates, is usually generated simply.

Secondary Computer Memory Types

Secondary storage (also called external storage or additional storage) is not related to primary storage because the processor is not directly accessible. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to access the second repository. It sends the required data to the primary repository.

Additional storage is not bulky( computer saved data when the power is off). Modern computer systems typically have two-order secondary commands than primary storage, as secondary storage is more expensive. Moreover, secondary storages are hard disk drives (HDDs) or hard disks (SSDs). HDD or SSD access time in milliseconds (thousands of seconds), and initial storage availability is in nanoseconds (billion seconds).

Thus, secondary storage is much slower than primary storage. Optical storage devices, such as CDs and DVDs, last longer. Other examples of additional storage technology include USB flash drives, floppy disks, magnetic tape, paper tapes, and perforated cards.

Other computer memory

  1. Cache Memory

Cache memory is a high-speed semiconductor memory that can speed up the processor. It acts as a buffer between the processor and the main memory. This processor holds parts of frequently used data and programs. Disk in the memory of the operating system stores partitions of data and programs, which is accessible to the processor.

Difference Between Memory and Storage in Computers

  • Memory

The term memory is a component of a computer that allows you to access stored data for a short period of time. It is  DRAM or dynamic randomly available memory.

The computer performs many operations by entering data stored in its short-term memory. Examples of such operations include document processing, application downloads, and Internet browsing, the speed and performance of the system depend on the amount of memory installed on the computer.


  • Storage

Memory is the location of short-term data, and a repository is a component of a computer. It allows you to store and access long-term data. Storage is usually in the form of a hard drive or hard disk.

Storage gives you unlimited access and storage of applications, operating systems, and files. The desktop represents the computer’s memory, and the archive is the storage space on the computer. Items that do not require storage are added to the archive for storage. You can save a lot depending on the file size.

An important difference between memory and storage is that-

Data on memory disappears. On the other hand, Data on storage remains present when you turn off the computer. So, the analogy with the desktop and the archive, computer discards the files left on the desktop when you leave the workplace. Everything stored in the archive remains.



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