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History of computer technology

History of computer technology

The history of computer technology shows that people in the old days tried to do a large number of calculations with the help of a computer. Modern computers have the ability to track general sets of operations called programs. So,these programs allow computers to perform a very wide range of tasks. But the computers of previous days were not like modern computers.

There is a stark difference between the computers of the past and the computers of today. We will briefly discuss the history of computer technology, so please read the full article.


Generation History of computer technology

  • Pre-20th century

For thousands of years, we had devices that support computers, mostly fingerprint correspondence. The first computer was probably a calculator. Containers for letter storage on livestock farms may be used to store livestock or grain, clay, cones, and so on.

The abacus originally solved arithmetic problems. Roman abacus in Babylon made of devices used up to 2400 BC.

Since then, many other types of tables or spreadsheets invented. In a medieval European counting house, gang clothes placed on a table and markers moved according to certain rules to help identify banknotes.

  • First computing device

The concept of a programmable computer developed by English mechanic and polymathist Charles Barham. He was the “grandfather of the computer“. He first conceptually invented the first mechanical computer.

After working on his revolutionary difference engine to help with navigational calculations. He realized in 1833 that the overall design of an analytical engine was possible.

Programming and data entry provided to the machines through perforated cards. This act at the time used the method of mechanical telecommunications routing. Such as the Jacquard TV series.

The machine will have a printer, a curve, and a bell to print. The device can also beat cards for later reading. The engine introduced an arithmetic logic block, control flow, and conditioned branches and loops. It was the first computer design used as a general-purpose computer.


  • Analog computers

In the first half of the century, the needs of scientific computers complicated. This is due to the use of the correct mechanical or electrical model as the basis for calculations using complex analog computers. However, they not programmed and did not have the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.

The first modern analog computer was the wave prediction machine. It invented in 1872 by Sir William Thomson. The differential analyzer, designed to solve differential equations. The differential equations consist of the integration of mechanical analog computers. The wheel, and disk mechanisms, developed in 1876 by James Thomson.

The art of mechanical analog computing introduced at its zenith in 1927. In 1927, at zenith, Kh. L. Dozens introduced these devices built before they became obsolete. Since the 1950s, the success of digital electronic computers has been the end of most analog computing machines. But a number of specialized applications used analog computer sin in the 1950s.  Such as education and aircraft.

  • Digital computers

Digital computers can be divided into two parts. They are discussed below-

  1. Electromechanical

By 1938, the U.S. military had developed an electromechanical computer that was too small to use on submarines. Torpedo Data using trigonometry to correct the activation of a torpedo in a moving form. Similarly, some devices made in other countries during World War II.

Early digital computers were electromechanical. The electrical switches released a mechanical relay to perform the calculation. These devices had a low operating speed, resulting in the replacement of all high-speed computers that use vacuum tubes. However, in 1939 by German engineer finds Con2 Zuse, the Z2 was one of the best examples of an electromechanical relay computer.

  1. Vacuum tubes and digital electronic circuits

Elements of a pure electronic circuit soon replaced mechanical and electromechanical alternatives. They replace analog-digital calculations. In the 1930s, Tommy Flowers, an engineer at the London Post Office’s research station. He began researching the use of electronics to replace telephones.

The trial gear, created in 1934, became operational five years after the fact. So, this changes a piece of the phone trade into electronic information by handling a framework utilizing a great many cylinders.

  • Modern computers

The principle of the modern computer proposed by Alan Turing in 1936 calculations. Turing introduced a simple device called the “universal computer machine”. Hence, it knows as the Turing universal machine.

He proved that such a machine can do anything. Therefore, it can be a programmable machine with the help of instructions (programs) stored on tape.

  1. Stored programs

Early computers had fixed programs. Changing its operation required restructuring and restructuring of the machine. So, this has changed depending on the recommended computer program of the saved program.

A computer in a stored program designs a set of instructions. It can store a set of instructions (a program) in memory that defines the calculation. The computerized basis of the preserved program laid in 1936 by Alan Turing.

In 1945, Turing joined the National Laboratory of Physics and began creating a digital computer for stored electronic programs. ” Recommended Electronic Calculator” was the first description.


  1. Transistors

The concept of the field-effect transistor proposed in 1925 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. The first transistor made in 1947, when John Bardin and Walter Brattain and William Shockley worked in Bell’s lab.


Shockley bipolar junction transistor 1948, transistors have replaced the drain pipes in computers. This creates a second generation of computers. Transistors have many advantages over vacuum tubes. They are smaller and require less power than vacuum tubes. So, they provide less heat. In this way, Cross-transistors are much more reliable than drainage pipes and their duration is unknown.

  1. Integrated circuits

Another major advance in computing power came with the advent of the integrated circuit (IC). The idea of ​​the integrated circuit proposed by radar scientist Jeffrey W. Because of this, he works at the Royal Radar Office of the Ministry of Defense.

Dummer presented the first public description of an integrated circuit on May 7, 1952, at a symposium.

Moreover, Kilby wrote his first ideas about the integrated circuit in July 1958. He showed the first combined example of success on September 12, 1958. On February 6, 1959, all components of the electronic circuit fully integrated.

  • Mobile computers

The first mobile computers were heavy and powerful. For example, The 50lb IBM 5100 was an earlier example. Later, laptops like the Osborne 1 and Compaq Portable were much lighter, but still to be connected.

Battery life in the 2000s increased the popularity of laptops. Because, new developments allowed manufacturers in the early 2000s to integrate computing resources into mobile phones.




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