How to cultivate the Button Mushroom?
A piece of brief information is trying to give about how to Cultivate the Button Mushroom in India. Eating mushrooms are very popular in India. We get it at a good rate in the market. There are many species of mushrooms. Some species we do not treat for food. We also cultivate edible mushrooms. Among them, edible mushrooms are buttons, milky and oyster. Edible mushrooms are Button, Milky, and Oyster.
Mushroom is a separate category of fungi. The scientific name of this mushroom is Agaricus Bisporus. The optimum growth of this mushroom occurs in the winter season. Moreover, it is available in all-season by using climate control technology. Therefore, the Portion below we want to focus on how to cultivate the Button Mushroom.
Taxonomy of Button Mushroom
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Division: Basidiomycota
- Class: Agaricomycetes
- Order: Agaricales
- Family: Agaricaceae
- Genus: Agaricus
Cultivation of Button Mushroom 35-45% of total mushroom production all over the world. India cultivates about 2000-3000 tones of mushroom is per annum. So, India exports this mushroom to the USA, Netherland, and China in the account of 60% of the total export quantity.
Price in the Indian market
The price of the fresh button mushroom is due to the quality of the product. So, we found in between 150-350 rupees per kg is charged.
Climate for cultivation
The effect of climate is very important for the growing and quality of the mushroom.
First, It needs 20-280 C for vegetative growth and 12-180 C for reproductive growth. Secondly, Around 80-90% RH is required and enough ventilation also required during cropping.
Growing and potential belt
- Himachal Pradesh,
- Uttar Pradesh
- Andhra Pradesh
- Tamil Nadu
For commercial production, many verities are available
- Ooty (BM) 2
- Horst H3
Cultivation Technology of Button Mushroom
The whole processes are
Spawn is very important for future culture.
- first of all, collects from the fruiting culture or stocks of sterile selected strains.
- secondly, The good quality Spawn carries a good flavor, texture, and size.
Composes those good qualities are
- planted wastes (cereal straw/ sugarcane bagasse etc.),
- supplements (wheat bran/ rice bran),
- salts (urea, superphosphate/gypsum, etc),
- and water.
The good ratio of nitrogen phosphate and potassium is 33 : 10: 25.
Mixing of the spam with compost. This process is known a Spawning. The methods for spawning are
a) First, Spot Spawning: lumps of spawn are placed in a 5cm hole. The distance between the two holes is 20-25cm.
b) Secondly, Surface Spawning: spread on the surface and covered a thin layer of compost.
c) Thirdly, Layer Spawning: 3-4 level of spawn blended with compost and covered a thin layer of compost.
For Spawn growth
- The final compost is filled in a polybag or tray.
- After then, it covered by a newspaper.
- Next, fungal growth takes place for about two weeks.
- Then, The temperature required about 23 ± 20º C.
- After all, relative humidity should be above 90%.
- At first, the compost bed is covered by a casting material that nothing but a high porosity soil layer.
- Secondly, The depth of this layer is 3-4 cm.
- Thirdly, water-holding capacity should be good and pH is 7-7.5 in range.
- Fourthly, fillup the tray with garden loam soil and sand (4:1); decomposed cow dung and loam soil (1:1) , and spent compost (2-3 years old);
- Finally, use sand and lime over the bed
For Fruiting, Must Maintain
a) First of all, Temperature ( 23 ± 20 C for the first week and then 16 ± 20 C ),
b) moisture (2-3 light sprays per day for maintaining the moisture of casting layer),
c) humidity( above 85%),
d) suitable ventilation, and CO2 (0.08-0.15 %) .
How to Harvest and yield Button Mushroom Cultivation
- At first, we have to gain knowledge of how to cultivate button mushrooms.
- After then, we have to think about harvesting or yielding.
- Next, When the cap of the mushroom about 2.5-4 cm it was harvested.
- After 3 weeks, it is able to harvest. Without disturbing the upper soil it is harvested by twisting the head of the mushroom.
- After harvesting the gap of the bed is filled with sterilized compost.
- 100kg fresh and good quality compost provides about 10 to 20 kg mushroom.
Packing and store
- At first, Button mushroom is easily degradable so it can difficult to store.
- Secondly, cutting the mushroom is washed with 5gm KMS in 10 liters.
- Thirdly packed in a small polybag and store it in 4ºC for short period.
- However, For long term preservation, canning method is used to preserve it.
- Besides, this freeze-drying, IQF, and pickling are also available.
The disease of Button Mushroom
- Dry Bubble (brown spot)
- Wet Bubble (White Mould)
- Green Mould
- False truffle
- Olive green Mould
- Brown plaster Mould
- Bacterial blotch
Components of a Mushroom Farm
- Composting Unit –
- Phase-I(Outdoor) composting area and indoor bunkers or aerated chambers,
- Phase-II (Indoor) in peak heating/bulk past-chamber
- Peak heating chamber
- Bulk pasteurization chamber
- Compost cooling in summer months is a special requirement
- Casing pasteurization chamber
- Spawn unit
- Spawn laboratory
- Cropping unit
- Seasonal cropping rooms
- Environment controlled cropping rooms
- The environment control, air conditioning and forced-air circulation
- Ancillary units
- Post-harvest handling unit
- Pre-cooling chamber
- Canning hall with a canning line
- Packaging room
Button Mushroom training center
|Mahagro India, Santacruz, Maharashtra, India|
|Sky Mushroom Training and Spawn lab, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India|
|Bhutta Agribiotech, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Biotech Era Transforming India, Indore, India|
|Mushroom Foundation India, Tamil Nadu, India|
|Khan Mushroom Farm, Himachal Pradesh, India|
|S’ Mushroom Agritech|
Advantages of button mushroom
a) Helps to fight cancer
b) Helps lower cholesterol levels
Good for your heart
- Helps to treat anemia
- Good for your bones
- Increases absorption of iron
- Helps to prevent inflammation
- Improves body immunity
- Use as Antioxidants.
A side effect of button mushroom
d) multiple sclerosis
Button Mushroom Food dishes
|a)Sauteed Button Mushrooms with White Wine Sauce
d)Sauteed Mushrooms in Garlic-Lemon Pan Sauce