How to farm Oyster Mushroom in India
A brief introduction about How to Farming of Oyster Mushroom in India- Edible mushroom is Milky, Button, and Oyster. We focus here on Oyster mushroom that is a fungus belongs to the Agaricaceae family. Thi common name of these fungi is ‘Dhingri’ in India. It is growing in the temperate and tropical zones. Oyster grows on the surface of dead and decaying wooden logs or dying trunks. It also grows on decaying organic matter artificially. The shape of this mushroom is shell or spatula type. There are different color shows depending upon the species like white, cream, grey, yellow, pink, or light brown.
Origin of Oyster Mushroom farming
In 1917 it was experimentally started in Germany by Flack. He cultivates first on tree stump and wood logs. Then with the help of Block, Tsao, and Hau, the USA can build up a perfected growing technology. From the early sixties, India takes initiative to farm this mushroom. After the mid of seventies, India also starts commercial production.
Oyster Mushroom farming countries
Nearly 85%, China supplies the total mushroom to the world market. It can produce one million tones of Oyster Mushroom per annum. There are many countries farming oyster mushroom-like Korea, Japan, Italy, Taiwan, Thailand, and the Philippines. India also cultivated this mushroom to fulfill the domestic demand. India also produces 1500 tonnes per annum.
Benefits of this mushroom
- It contains Vitamin B complex and C.
- About 1.6 to 2.5 percent protein present in this mushroom.
- It contains niacin ten times higher than other vegetables.
- This is a good source of folic acid which helps to cure anemia.
- It also treats hypertension.
- Due to the presence of low sodium and potassium source, it helps to treat diabetes.
- It is a rich source of pleurotin which have antibiotic properties.
- The unused portion of the mushroom used to prepare the compost of the button mushroom.
- The straw of this mushroom uses for biogas.
Demand and Supply of Oyster Mushroom
In the domestic market, it is not so popular as button mushroom. So very few companies are producing commercially for export purposes. The profit of this mushroom is more than button mushroom. Moreover, the cultivation is done in rural areas because their raw materials are easily available.
The exported quantity of fresh mushrooms is 11797 tonnes and the preserved mushroom is 4099 tons per year. The exported countries are
- S. A
- A. E
Climate for Oyster Mushroom
TIn India, the moderate temperature requires for Oyster mushroom. The temperature required is 20-30ºC. for this high humidity like 55 to 70 % is essential. In the summer season, it can also be cultivated by increasing humidity. The best place is the hilly area above 900 meters.
Growing and potential belts for Oyster Mushroom
- Andhra Pradesh
- Madhya Pradesh
- West Bengal
- Most of the northeastern hills
Which species are applicable for cultivation.
There are so many species available. Among them P. olearius and P. piriformis is poisonous. The commercially cultivated species are P. flabelltus, P. sajor cajo, P. sapidus, P.membranaceous, P.citrinopileatus, P.eous for the summer season. For winter season P.ostreatus, P.florida, P.cornucopiae, P.fossulatus, P.eryngii species are available for cultivation.
Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom In India
There are few steps for production. The steps are
Preparation or procurement of spawn
Inoculation requires a pure culture. This process undergoes on the surface of a sterile substrate. For mycelia growth on cereal grains, 10-15 days required. It was observed that the jawar and bajra grains are more preferable than wheat grains for the growth of spawn.
There have a large number of choices to prepare the substrate for the cultivation of Oyster Mushroom. The agro-wastes which contain cellulose and lignin are ideal because it helps to induce the production of more enzymes. For that, it increases the yield of the product. The materials used for substrate preparation are straw.
( For example-ragi, wheat, and paddy, leaves of maize, millets, and cotton, used citronella leaf, sugarcane bagasse, jute waste, sawdust, cotton waste, corn cobs, pea nutshells, sunflower stalks, unused tea leaf, dried grasses, waste paper and synthetic compost of button mushrooms).
The industrial waste also prefers for substrate preparation like coffee byproducts, paper mill sludges, apple pomace, tobacco waste, etc.
Methods of substrate preparation
- Steam Pasteurization;
- Hot Water Treatment
- Sterile Technique (Till method);
- Fermentation or Composting; and
- Chemical Sterilization.
Spawning of substrate
The good quality spawn has 20-30 days old. The 3-6 months old spawn allows you to keep in the room which holds 20 -30 0 C temperature. In this condition, it forms a thick mat due to mycelium aggregation or young pinheads and fruit bodies. So, this total process undergoes in a sterile room which previously fumigates with 2% formaldehyde for 48 hr.
In this period the bags are placed in a dark room. The mycelium starts colony on the substrate. For the growth of mycelium 10 to 33 0 C is required. But, for spawn running the temperature should be 22 to 26 0C required.
After colonization, the fungus is started to grow and ready for fruiting. Some bags are contaminated by mould. Those bags are separated. For different species different temperatures and humidity required. About 70 to 85 % humidity required for fruiting. If the humidity is less then several sprays will be done.
CO2 concentration should be maintained less than 600 ppm during cropping. So, sufficient ventilation should be maintained during fruiting.
When the required shape and size came, it was able to harvest. It was very important that before the spore release the harvesting process is done. The yield of this mushroom is 500 kg per tones of dry wheat or straw. Hence, it takes 45-60 days.
Storing the harvested mushrooms is in cool conditions from 0 to 5 ºC for 2 weeks. The above process follows for the short term.
For the long term, dry the mushroom up to 2 to 4% moisture for the best storage.
The disease of Oyster Mushroom
- Green blotch
- Brown rot
- Sabrina rot
Oyster Mushrooms Best Recipies
- Masala and curry (Indian Recipies)
- Oyster Mushrooms Pizza